Review Article

Role of nanotechnology in diagnosing and treating COVID-19 during the Pandemic

Abdul Baset*, Abdul Waris, Muhammad Ali, Atta Ullah Khan and Asmat Ali

Published: 27 May, 2020 | Volume 4 - Issue 1 | Pages: 065-070

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), began in December 2019 in Wuhan, China. To date, the virus has infected roughly 5,000,000 people and caused approximately 345,000 deaths worldwide, and these numbers are increasing rapidly. Because of the rapid spread and the rising disease burden, several antiviral drugs and immunomodulators are in clinical trials, but no drugs or vaccines have yet been approved against this deadly pandemic. At present, computed tomography scanning and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR are used to diagnose COVID-19, and nanotechnology is being used to develop drugs against COVID-19. Nanotechnology also plays a role in diagnosing COVID-19. In this article, we discuss the role of nanotechnology in diagnosing and potentially treating COVID-19.

Read Full Article HTML DOI: 10.29328/journal.ijcv.1001017 Cite this Article Read Full Article PDF


COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Nanotechnology; Diagnosis; Treatment


  1. Waris A, Khan AU, Ali M, Ali A, Baset A. COVID-19 outbreak: current scenario of Pakistan. New Microbes and New Infections. 2020.100681.
  2. Kaul D. An Overview of Coronaviruses including the SARS-2 Coronavirus–Molecular Biology, Epidemiology and Clinical Implications. Current Medicine Research and Practice, 2020. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32363221
  3. Curley M, Thomas N. Human security and public health in Southeast Asia: the SARS outbreak. Australian J Int Affairs, 2004. 58: 17-32.
  4. Kumar S, Rathi B. Coronavirus Disease COVID-19: A New Threat to Public Health. Curr Top Med Chem. 2020; 20(8):599-600. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32133964
  5. Agarwal HK, Chhikara BS, Doncel GF, Parang K. Synthesis and anti-HIV activities of unsymmetrical long chain dicarboxylate esters of dinucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters. 2017; 27: 1934-1937. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28351588
  6. Gnanasangeetha D, SaralaThambavani D. One pot synthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles via chemical and green method. Res J Material Sci. 2013; 2320: 6055.
  7. Chhikara BS. Corona virus SARS-CoV-2 disease COVID-19: Infection, prevention andclinical advances of the prospective chemical drug therapeutics. Chemical Biology Letters, 2020. 7: 63-72.
  8. Chotiwan N, Brewster CD, Magalhaes T, Weger-Lucarelli J, Duggal NK, et al. Rapid and specific detection of Asian-and African-lineage Zika viruses. Science translational medicine. 2017; 9: eaag0538. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28469032
  9. Yang W, Dang X. Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Reverse Transcription RT-LAMP Method. medRxiv. 2020.
  10. Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, et al. Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. The Lancet. 2020; 395: 565-574.
  11. Chan WCW. Nano Research for COVID-19. ACS Nano. 2020; 14: 3719-3720. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32227916/
  12. Law S, Leung AW, Xu C. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19): From Causes to Preventions in Hong Kong. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2020. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32251790
  13. Yang W, Dang X, Wang Q, Xu M, Zhao Q, et al. Rapid Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Using Reverse transcription RT-LAMP method. Med Rxiv. 2020.
  14. Zhu X, Wang X, Han L, Chen T, Wang L, et al. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with nanoparticles-based biosensor for diagnosis of COVID-19. medRxiv. 2020.
  15. Yu L, Wu S, Hao X, Li X, Liu X, et al. Rapid colorimetric detection of COVID-19 coronavirus using a reverse tran-scriptional loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) diagnostic plat-form: iLACO. medRxiv. 2020.
  16. Lamb LE, Bartolone SN, Ward E, Chancellor MB. Rapid Detection of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) by Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification. medRxiv. 2020.
  17. Xiang J, Yan M, Li H, Liu T, Lin C, et al. Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay and Colloidal Gold-Immunochromatographic Assay Kit for Detection of Novel Coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) Causing an Outbreak of Pneumonia (COVID-19). medRxiv. 2020.
  18. Udugama B, Kadhiresan P, Kozlowski HN, Malekjahani A, Osborne M, et al. Diagnosing COVID-19: The Disease and Tools for Detection. ACS nano. 2020 Mar 30.
  19. Zhu X, Wang X, Han L, Chen T, Wang L, et al. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with nanoparticles-based biosensor for diagnosis of COVID-19. medRxiv. 2020.
  20. Wang M, Fu A, Hu B, Tong Y, Liu R, et al. Nanopore target sequencing for accurate and comprehensive detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. medRxiv. 2020.
  21. Liu R, Fu A, Deng Z, Li Y, Liu T. Promising methods for detection of novel coronavirus SARS‐CoV‐2. View. 2020; 1.
  22. Yu L, Tong Y, Shen G, Fu A, Lai Y, et al. Immunodepletion with Hypoxemia: A Potential High Risk Subtype of Coronavirus Disease 2019. medRxiv. 2020.
  23. Peeri NC, Shrestha N, Rahman MS, Zaki R, Tan Z, et al. The SARS, MERS and novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemics, the newest and biggest global health threats: what lessons have we learned? Int J Epidemiol. 2020 Feb 22. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32086938
  24. Ziaie S, Koucheck M, Miri M, Salarian S, Shojaei S, et al. Review of therapeutic agents for the treatment of COVID-19. J Cellular Molecular Anesthe. 2020; 5: 32-36.
  25. Song Z, Hu Y, Zheng S, Yang L, Zhao R. Hospital pharmacists’ pharmaceutical care for hospitalized patients with COVID-19: Recommendations and guidance from clinical experience. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7129111/
  26. Tobaiqy M, Qashqary M, Al-Dahery S, Mujallad A, Hershan AA, et al. Therapeutic Management of COVID-19 Patients: A systematic review. Infection Prevention in Practice. 2020: 100061.
  27. Donders F, Lonnée-Hoffmann R, Tsiakalos A, Mendling W, Martinez de Oliveira J, et al. COVID I. ISIDOG Recommendations Concerning COVID-19 and Pregnancy. Diagnostics. 2020; 10: 243. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32338645
  28. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a review. JAMA 2020. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32282022
  29. Wang LS, Wang YR, Ye DW, Liu QQ. A review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020: 105948. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7156162/
  30. Kaura KK, Allahbadiab G, Singhc M. A comprehensive review on epidemiology, aetiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of the novel coronavirus syndrome–COVID-19. 2020.
  31. Dong L, Hu S, Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Drug discoveries & therapeutics. 2020; 14: 58-60. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32147628
  32. Razzaque M. COVID-19 Pandemic: Can Maintaining Optimal Zinc Balance Enhance Host Resistance?
  33. Eby GA. Zinc ion availability--the determinant of efficacy in zinc lozenge treatment of common colds. The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy. 199; 40: 483-493. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9372416
  34. Read SA, Obeid S, Ahlenstiel C, Ahlenstiel G. The role of zinc in antiviral immunity. Adv Nutr. 2019; 10: 696-710. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31305906 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906491
  35. Eby III GA. Zinc lozenges as cure for the common cold–a review and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2010; 74: 482-492. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19906491
  36. Field CJ, Johnson IR, Schley PD. Nutrients and their role in host resistance to infection. J leukoc Biol. 2002; 71: 16-32. PubMed: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11781377
  37. Prasad AS. Zinc: mechanisms of host defense. J Nutr. 2007; 137: 1345-1349. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17449604
  38. Overbeck S, Uciechowski P, Ackland ML, Ford D, Rink L. Intracellular zinc homeostasis in leukocyte subsets is regulated by different expression of zinc exporters ZnT-1 to ZnT-9, J Leukoc Biol. 2008; 83: 368-380. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17971500
  39. Lambert SA, Jolma A, Campitelli LF, Das PK, Yin Y, et al. The Human Transcription Factors. Cell. 2018; 172: 650665. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30290144
  40. Wimalawansa SJ. Global epidemic of coronavirus—covid-19: what can we do to minimize risks. European J Biomed. 2020; 7: 432-438.Król A, Pomastowski P, Rafińska K, Railean-Plugaru V, Buszewski B.
  41. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: Synthesis, antiseptic activity and toxicity mechanism. Advances in colloid and interface science. 2017; 249: 37-52. PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28923702


Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 1

Figure 2

Similar Articles

Recently Viewed

Read More

Most Viewed

Read More

Help ?